for people ages 18 years and up (full criteria)
study started
completion around
Principal Investigator
by Martin Cadeiras, MD (ucla)



Demonstrate the impact of the Molecular Microscope Diagnostic System as the standard of care for heart transplant patients.

Official Title

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Microarrays in Heart Transplantation, a Multicenter Study (INTERHEART)


The current standard for biopsy-based diagnoses of rejection of heart transplants is the ISHLT classification from 2004, which represents a widely-used international consensus, based on morphological criteria of the cellular infiltrate within the myocardial specimen system with certainties and some arbitrary and blurred parameters. Recent data-driven approaches using molecular and conventional technologies indicate that this system produces incorrect diagnoses with potential harm to patients due to inappropriate treatment. To address this unmet need and improve diagnostics in the area of organ transplantation, the Alberta Transplant Applied Genomics Centre (ATAGC, University of Alberta) has developed a new diagnostic system - the Molecular Microscope® Diagnostic System (MMDx) that interprets biopsies in terms of their molecular phenotype, and combines the molecular and histopathological features of transplant biopsies, plus clinical and laboratory parameters, to create the first Integrated Diagnostic System. The MMDx developed first in kidney transplant biopsies because phenotypes are well established, will now be adapted to heart transplant endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). The present study will develop a Reference Set of EMB, adapt the MMDx system to assess and report EMBs; and validate and refine this system in 900 unselected prospectively collected for clinical indications and a standard of care EMBs from North American and European Centers. In addition to demonstrating the real-time feasibility and potential value of this System in patient care, the study will develop and optimize a transparent and user-friendly reporting format to communicate this information to clinicians and obtain detailed feedback to improve its utility. We refine now our MMDx system using a new type of analysis (see primary outcome) and the resulting MMDx report. Currently, INTERHEART recruited 1859 biopsies from 1233 patients.


Cardiac Transplant Disorder, Heart transplant, global gene expression, molecular diagnostics, Endomyocardial biopsy


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18 years and up

- biopsy for clinical indications

You CAN'T join if...

  • no consent
  • pregnant women


  • UCLA Medical Centre accepting new patients
    Los Angeles California 90024 United States
  • Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute accepting new patients
    Los Angeles California 90048 United States

Lead Scientist at University of California Health


accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
University of Alberta
Study Type
Expecting 900 study participants
Last Updated