for people ages 18-65 (full criteria)
Healthy Volunteers
healthy people welcome
at UC Davis
study started
estimated completion
Principal Investigator
by J. Bruce German, PhD (ucdavis)Bruce D. Hammock, PhD (ucdavis)



Phase 2 of this study involves determining how consumption of cheese compared with a non-dairy cheese substitute influences inflammation over a six hour period.

Official Title

Effects of Dairy Fat on Postprandial Inflammation- Phase 2


Phase 2 is a randomized crossover study designed to determine how consumption of cheese compared with a non-dairy cheese substitute influences postprandial inflammation in participants who have 2 or more risk factors of metabolic syndrome or BMI ≥ 30. Eligible participants will arrive to the Western Human Nutrition Research Center (WHNRC) at the University of California (UC) Davis campus on the morning of each test day after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Upon arrival participants will fill out a questionnaire about their dietary and medication intakes and physical activity for the past 72 hours to ensure compliance. Compliant participants' weight and blood pressure will be measured and a fasting blood draw will be taken before participants consume their test meal (cheese or non-dairy cheese substitute). Participants will only consume this test meal and water freely for the duration of the test day. Blood will be drawn serially at 1, 3 and 6 hours postprandially. Participants will be tested on a second test day two weeks after the first test. On the second test day, participants' body composition and bone mineral density will be measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry.


Metabolic Syndrome Obesity Inflammation Cheddar cheese Vegan cheese Cheese


You can join if…

Open to people ages 18-65

  • Age 18-65 years
  • Two or more components of metabolic syndrome:

Central obesity (waist circumference greater than 40 inches for men and 35 inches for women); fasting blood triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL; plasma HDL cholesterol (Less than 40 mg/dL for men and less than 50 mg/dL for women); blood pressure greater than or equal to 130/85 mmHg; fasting glucose greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL


  • BMI equal to or greater than 30

You CAN'T join if...

Metabolic Disorders:

  • BMI > 40
  • Body weight more than 400 lbs.
  • Any immune related diseases such as autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma,
  • Gastrointestinal disorders including Crohn's Disease, colitis, diverticulitis, irritable bowel disease, celiac, malabsorption syndrome
  • Cancer
  • Known presence of significant metabolic disease which could impact the results of the study (i.e. hepatic, renal disease)
  • Type II diabetes
  • Use of over-the-counter anti-obesity agents (e.g. containing phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, and/or caffeine) within the last 12 weeks
  • Use of corticoid steroids within the last 12 weeks
  • Daily use of anti-inflammatory pain medication
  • Self report of eating disorder
  • Poor vein assessment determined by WHNRC's phlebotomist


  • Known allergy or intolerance to study food (lactose intolerance, dairy, wheat allergies)
  • Vegetarian (defined as abstinence from consumption of eggs, dairy, poultry, beef and pork)
  • More than 1 serving of fish per week
  • More than 14 grams of fiber per 1000 kcal per day
  • Less than 16:1 of total dietary omega 6: Omega 3 ratio
  • More than 1% of daily energy as trans fats
  • Initiation of anti-inflammatory supplemental fish, krill, flax, borage and primrose seed oils within the last 12 weeks
  • Dietary supplements consisting of concentrated soy isoflavones, resveratrol, other polyphenols identified as modulators of inflammation Medications
  • Initiation of statin therapy within the last 12 weeks Lifestyle
  • More than 10% weight loss or gain during the past 6 months
  • Recent initiation (past 4 weeks) of exercise program
  • Plan to become pregnant in the next 6 months
  • Pregnancy or lactation
  • Recent initiation or cessation of hormonal birth control or change in hormonal birth control regimen within the last 12 weeks
  • Use of tobacco products
  • More than 2 standard alcoholic drinks per day.


  • USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center
    Davis California 95616 United States

Lead Scientists at University of California Health

  • J. Bruce German, PhD (ucdavis)
    Professor, Food Science & Technology. Authored (or co-authored) 12 research publications.
  • Bruce D. Hammock, PhD (ucdavis)
    Professor, Entomology. Authored (or co-authored) 564 research publications.


in progress, not accepting new patients
Start Date
Completion Date
University of California, Davis
Link to the UC Davis Foods for Health Institute where more information about this research project is available.
Study Type
Last Updated